Main page | Journal list | Log-in

Lenka Zajíčková, Marek Eliáš, Ondřej Jašek, Vít Kudrle, Zdeněk Frgala, Jiřina Matějková, Jiří Buršík, Magdaléna Kadlečíková

Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Torch for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47 (2005) B655–B666

The microwave (mw) plasma torch at atmospheric pressure has been studied for carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis. The depositions were carried out on silicon substrates with 5-15 nm thin iron catalytic overlayers from the mixture of argon, hydrogen and methane. The optical emission spectroscopy of the torch showed the presence of C-2 and CH radicals as well as carbon and hydrogen excited atoms. The vicinity of the substrate influenced the relative intensities and increased the emission of C2. For fixed mw power, the temperature of the substrate strongly depended on its position with respect to the nozzle electrode and on the gas mixture, particularly the amount of H-2. The speed of the substrate heating during an early deposition phase had a significant effect on the CNT synthesis. An abrupt increase of the temperature at the beginning increased the efficiency of the CNT synthesis. Areas of dense straight standing CNTs, 30 nm in average diameter, with approximately the same sized iron nanoparticles on their tops were found in accordance with the model of growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. However, the deposit was not uniform and a place with only several nanometres thick CNTs grown on much larger iron particles was also found. Here, taking into account the gas temperature in the torch, 3100-3900K, we can see similarities with the 'dissolution-precipitation' model of the CNT growth by high temperature methods, arc or laser ablation.

Download PDF (610 kB)

This article may also be available to you online

You can also contact one of the authors:,,

Citing Articles

  1. Zajíčková L., Eliáš M., Jašek O., Kučerová Z., Synek P., Matějková J., Kadlečíková M., Klementová M., Buršík J., Vojačková A.,
    Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Deposited in Microwave Torch at Atmospheric Pressure,
    Plasma Processes and Polymers 4 (2007) S245–S249
  2. Jašek O., Eliáš M., Zajíčková L., Kučerová Z., Matějková J., Rek A., Buršík J.,
    Discussion of Important Factors in Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes by Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch,
    Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 68 (2007) 738–743
  3. Denysenko I., Ostrikov K., Cvelbar U., Mozetic M., Azarenkov N. A.,
    Carbon nanofiber growth in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,
    Journal of Applied Physics 104 (2008) 000
  4. Denysenko I., Ostrikov K., Cvelbar U., Mozetic M., Azarenkov N. A.,
    Carbon nanofiber growth in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,
    Journal of Applied Physics 104 (2008) 000
  5. Bhuyan H., Favre M., Valderrama E., Avaria G., Wyndham E., Chuaqui H., Baier J., Kelly H., Grondona D., Marquez A.,
    Formation of sub-micron size carbon structures by plasma jets emitted from a pulsed capillary discharge,
    Applied Surface Science 255 (2009) 3558-3562
  6. Zajíčková L., Synek P., Jašek O., Eliáš M., David B., Buršík J., Pizurova N., Hanzlíková R., Lazar L.,
    Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and iron oxide nanoparticles in MW plasma torch with Fe(CO)(5) in gas feed,
    Applied Surface Science 255 (2009) 5421-5424
  7. Jašek O., Synek P., Zajíčková L., Eliáš M., Kudrle V.,
    Synthesis of Carbon Nanostructures by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition at Atmospheric Pressure,
    Journal Of Electrical Engineering 61 (2010) 311-313
  8. Zajíčková L., Jašek O., Eliáš M., Synek P., Lazar L., Schneeweiss O., Hanzlíková R.,
    Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition in an atmospheric-pressure microwave torch,
    Pure and Applied Chemistry 82 (2010) 1259–1272
  9. Nozaki T., Yoshida S., Karatsu T., Okazaki K.,
    Atmospheric-pressure plasma synthesis of carbon nanotubes,
    Journal of Physics D 44 (2011) 111
  10. Lestinska L., Martisovits V., Machala Z.,
    Corona discharge as a temperature probe of atmospheric air microwave plasma jet,
    Journal of Polymer Science B 112 (2011) 2779-2786
  11. David B., Pizurova N., Schneeweiss O., Kudrle V., Jašek O., Synek P.,
    Iron-Based Nanopowders Containing alpha-Fe, Fe3C, and gamma-Fe Particles Synthesised in Microwave Torch Plasma and Investigated with Mossbauer Spectroscopy,
    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 50 (2011) 0000
  12. Prášek J., Drbohlavova J., Chomoucka J., Hubálek J., Jašek O., Adam V., Kizek R.,
    Methods for carbon nanotubes synthesis-review,
    Journal of Materials Science 21 (2011) 15872-15884
  13. Pipa A. V., Andrasch M., Rackow K., Ehlbeck J., Weltmann K.-D.,
    Observation of microwave volume plasma ignition in ambient air,
    Plasma Sources Science and Technology 21 (2012) 2-5
  14. Pekárek J., Ficek R., Vrba R., Magat M.,
    Proc: Electrodes Modified by Carbon Nanotubes for Pressure Measuring,